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Abbreviation and Terms:

O.D. - ocular Dexter; or R.E.- right eye
O.S. - 0cular sinester; or L.E. - left eye
O.U. - ocular unistas; or O2 - both eyes together
D -diopter - unit of measurement of strenght of refractive power of lenses
E.O.M- extra ocular muscles
H ( hyperopia, hypermetropia - farsightedness
HT (hypertropia)- upward deviation of one eye
ST (esotropia)- inward deviation of one eye
XT (exotropia)- outward deviation of one eye. { convex+} {concave-}
Diplopia- seeing one object as two (double vision)
Ectropion- turning out of eyelid
Entropion- turning in of eyelid
Ptosis - drooping of upper eyelid
Presbyopia- lessining of power of accommodation owing to aging process
Photophobia - fear of light

Now a days every individual are prone to sickness. because we are not eating a balance diet in every meal. Usually now, people just eating attractive foods or deliciously prepared food not considering if there is a vitamin content. But still lucky because there are vitamin supplements products available. These are preparation intended to supplement a human diet with vitamins,dietary products and other nutritional elements. Such preparations are available in the form of tablets, capsules, pastilles, powders, liquids and injectable formulations.

Stomatitis- an inflammatory condition of the mouth.

Primary causes are may due to herpes Simplex and measles, local trauma such as cheek biting, ill-fitting dentures; excessive intake of alcohol, tobacco , hot food or from mouth washes or toothpaste.

Systemic causes : avitaminosis, blood disorder like perniceous anemia, or leukemia. systemic infection such as syphilis

Signs and Symptoms:
painful ulcer of the mucus membrane

Nursing Care:
sterility precausion
infectious precausion

Energy needs our body to reach the optimal performance in sports, daily works , loss weight or wellness or disease prevention. We need to maintain our body healthy and strong by taking the right nutritious foods to keep the calories useful in our body. A balance diet should always includes foods rich in protein to builds the body and keep healthy and strong. There are individuals who used to weak and unhealthy because they eat at home or restaurant not considering protein content . Some are choosy and some just eats of their favorite like sweets or fatty foods.. This is an improper eating habit guys! You might become weak and sick. Try supplement your diet with protein.

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Sign and Symptoms

  • Nasal discharge
  • sore throat
  • sneezing malaise
  • fever
  • chilliness
  • headache
  • muscle aching


  • increase fluid intake
  • advise to drink enough fruit juices that are rich in vitamin C to increase resistant against infection
  • advice rest
  • prevention of chilling by applying hot bags at the lower extremities
  • advise warm water gargles to soothe the sore throat
  • proper disposal of paper tissues
  • covering mouth when coughing to avoid the spread of virus to other
  • avoid going to crowds
  • observe careful handwashing to avoid spreading of virus through indirect contact
Treatment: Decongestant as prescribed by the physician

VARICOSE ULCER- inflammatory necrotic tissue caused by prolonged venous stains and edema seen in patient with varicose veins


  • skin discolored and browny
  • hard edema
  • burning pain ulceration

That's true..millions of people in the world trying to be slim and wanted to loss some excess weight. And so many diet pills in the drugstore for sale from different companies . Sometimes you are not sure if those manufacturers are licensed . One year ago, one daughter of a celebrity was rushed to emergency hospital and confined for five days. She was admitted with a complaints of dizziness and fainting after taking pills for loosing weight . She was about to celebrate her 18'th birthday that s why she took that pills to loss wait but unfortunately instead getting slim body but she was in danger. The mother said that said pills was bought in the big drugstore and enclosed a drug literature and clearly written that there is no adverse reaction. The pills is like a weight loss scam trying to take advantage to convince those desperate overweight individuals.

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MYOCARDITIS - in an inflammation of the myocardium

Signs and Symptoms

  • fatique
  • dyspnea- difficulty of breathing
  • palpitations
  • occasional pre cordial discomfort
Findings to a patient with myocardium
  • cardiac murmur- heart sounds like fluid passing an obstruction due to the dysfuntion of the papillary muscles of the heart
  • enlargement of the heart
  • pericardial friction
  • fever with tachycardia-
  • gallop rhythm
  • possible development of congestive heart failure
Nursing Cares:
  • Monitoring vital Signs , heart sounds pulse, respirations and blood pressure record and report further abnormality
  • Rmeasure and record daily fluid output and input
  • record weight daily
  • check for any presence of edema on extremities
  • Carry out medications accurately and observed for toxic effect of digitalis
  • elevate head for if patient request
  • observed for development of dysrhythmias
  • resuscitation equipment is always ready
  • emotional support to patient to prevent anxiety
  • proper approach to answer her question


How many days more..another year comes again. I am sure by now , we had something in our mind for a new years resolution. Usually most of new years resolution i heard was to change her life to be more friendly, loving to parents or love one, not to cheat parents or friends, or going to church every Sunday or to be good parents or good person and to study harder for students. Life before was simpler than these days. Life now is complicated especially finances and way of living. We have so many things longing for like house and lots, cars, vacations, jeweleries , and expensive stuffs. I admire a person don't stop aiming and determined to achieve his goal. I am sure by this time you're one of them.

This is a good news for you this new year ! This, a website that helps you to set and achieve your goals what you want to achieve on 2009. They have free tools to help you to set your plan and ensures you to be responsible to implement action plan continuously until you achieved your goals. Finally you will soon achieve unexpectedly. Once you achieved your goal for example you have already bought a new car. The friends co-employee wonder how come you able to buy a car because you are just receiving salary enough for your daily expenses. Now your chance to tell and spread to other people how you successfully achieved to buy a car. Create a network of friends and family by motivating or give an inspiration to set his goal for this new year. Kids also can do it. Let your kids learn to be responsible start at their young age like ("teaching a child the way he should go spiritually and economically , when he is old he will not depart from it .")
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Colonoscopy is the direct visualization of the large intestine by the use of colonoscope to assess the the large intestines for a presence a condition such as polyps, strictures, ulcerative collitis, crohn's disease and cancer condition.
Preparation Care to patient before Colonoscopy

  • First explain the procedure to the patient/ immediate family. Understanding about the procedure promotes cooperation and relieve anxiety to patient.
  • Take the consent from patient or immediate family.
  • Limit patients intake to clear liquids for 24-48 hours before the procedure or as directed by the endoscopist
  • administer cathartic as prescribed by the physician in the evening for two days before the examination
  • saline enemas until return are clear 3 hours before the colonoscopy
  • prepare equiptments and be sure all are working properly
  • let patient void and gown to be on
  • Administer all medications ordered by physician like analgesic or sedative
  • keep vein open for administering emergency medications as directed by the physician
  • Vital signs taken and record
Nurse assist the physician during the procedure

Intestinal Obstruction - is an intestinal content can not flow normally along the intestinal tract.

Two types
mechanical- physical obstruction of the passage of the intestinal content without without disturbing the blood supply of the intestines

paralytic ileus- no physical obstruction of the passage of the intestinal content

Causes of Intestinal Obstruction

  • cancer
  • foreign body lodged in the bowel like false teeth, jewelry, large fruit or seed and etc.
  • stricture of the bowel due to scar of the ulcer in the wall of the intestine
  • hernia
  • intusseption
  • twisted intestine
Signs and symptoms:
colic (cramps)
abdominal distention
increased blowel sounds
abdominal pain

Looking for someone to talk to? Well is a community website that facilitates free live chat . Open for blogging, personal and dating . Sign up for free membership and instantly you can send messages to other members. This maybe just for fun for you but who knows.... unexpectedly you will find someone interested to date you. Flirting will do thru live chat also. why not? Chat rooms also available online to all members and can chat anything you want to chat and no censorship at all. You will surely enjoy. This is also an effective treatment for depressed person. Why you let yourself depressed? Chat with other people! Talk with them! you can talk with people live in the US for free. Sign up now to make new friends ! Express out your feeling by chating and talking!

Hemorrhoids is the rupture of veins in the anus

*Internal hemorrhoid is located inside the rectum and usually painless.
*External hemorrhoid is develop under the skin at the opening of the anal cavity. extremely painful

Signs and Symptoms:
ichyness of the anus
burning sensation
bleeding during defecation
infection of the ulceration
stool colored with bright red color due to injury of the affected veins

high fiver diet to soften stool because hard stool injure the mucosa with hemorrhoid
hot sitz bath to relieve pain and swelling
for prolapse hemorrhoid

  • apply cold compress to anal area
  • return hemorrhoid back manually and gently to the anal sphincter
  • apply ointment as prescribed by the physician

I’ve been tagged by Mommy Elvz . Thanks again mommy for this tag :)

1. Add your blog/s to the list. Feel free to add all your other blogs. It’s okey if you only post this questions in one blog as long as you answer them.
2. Get back to ME and I’ll add your blogs to the master’s list HERE {Note that you are not ALLOWED to change this links and make sure to leave the exact URL.}
3. Copy from Start to End.
4. Tag as many friends online you know. But you don’t need to be tag in order to join. Who played along:

1. Music of my Heart 2. Me and Mine 3. Creative in Me 4. For the LOVE of Food 5. Little Peanut 6. Pea in a Pod 7. It’s Where the HEART Is 8. Around the World 9. FunFierceFabulous 10. Ozzy’s Mom 11. Me,Myself+2 12. Kidd Designs 13. Complex Life 14. BeautifuL s0UL 15. Kurdapya Meets World 16. once we were 2… 17 Pinaymama’s Diary 18. Best Pinay Mom 19. survivor mom 20. maternity woman 21 nurse note 22 mothercares 23 psycha 24 Your Blog here

Questions and Answers:

1. Grab the book nearest to you, turn to page 18, find line 4. Write down what it says:..'"What drives you Nuts?

2. Stretch your left arm out as far as you can. What do you touch first?… window curtain

3.What is the last thing you watched on TV? Survivor Philippines

4.WITHOUT LOOKING, guess what time it is: 12:00 noon

5. Now look at the clock, what is the actual time?…12:o8 noon

6. With the exception of the computer, what can you hear?…. kids playing outside

7. When did you last step outside? what were you doing? .... cooking

8. Before you came to this website, what did you look at? Emails

9. What are you wearing?… house blouse and short pant

10. Did you dream last night?…i can’t remember

11. When did you last laugh?….last night

12. What is on the walls of the room you are in?… garage

13. Seen anything weird lately?.. nope

14. What do you think of this quiz?’s fun!

15. What is the last movie you saw?…

16. If you became a multi-millionaire overnight, what would you buy first? and lots

17. Tell me something about you that I don’t know:..I’m considerate…

18. If you could change one thing about the world, regardless of guilt or politics, what would you do?… '' only one language

19. Do you like to dance?, i’m not a good dancer ^_^

20. Imagine your first child is a girl, what do you call her? a boy?… my first child is really a girl and i named her Christine , and second is a boy i named him Joshua

I am tagging: Lalaine , mom of four,
purple worm , Ask me a Recipe

Nouveau Riche's multi visions and goals on education, events , about and press. First objective is to educate students or anyone who is determined to learn about real state investing or successful entrepreneurs.They will help anyone to know the strategy to become a rich . Nouveau Riche is always ready with an open doors to everybody even to poor students are given the chance to study and learn the vital information on business success. Provides tools , training and seminars, systems and support to avail the right path to be successful in business. The best smart and experienced professor will openly gives the tips and shares the secret for success. Personally i am impressed so much and congratulates Nouveau Riche because of their sincerity of sharing their knowledge and facilities to everyone. No wonder, Nouveau Riche was featured also in business magazine and the press are interested to cover all the events. For more information search on

The new Chief Executive Officer of Nouveau Riche now is Laura Palmer Noone. Who does not know about Laura Palmer? She was the President of University of Phonex the largest university of the intire world. She was the one who made this university the largest. How lucky Nouveau Riche to have Laura Palmer as the chief officer. She started working with Nouveau Riche by focusing on small business and entrepreneural to the students. Aside from being a preident of Phonex , she also serves as board on the Arizona Board for Private postsecondary Education and the Arizona Family College. She is also involves in several charitable foundations and institutions.

Nouveau was founded by entrepreneur Jim Piccolo with the intent of offering practical knowledge for jump-starting students' careers. It offers associate and bachelor's degrees in business.

Wow. Nouveau Riche has a website about the the testimonials of the the university students employee, investors, instructors from the NRU community and share their success stories and amazing success of their business. Many of them have changed their life from poverty into fame. They are a products of the Nouveau University who now enjoying the opportunity of raising huge money on real estate investments.

Nouveau Riche can't stop investors of sharing their positive cash flow. Nouveau Riche's amazing achievements of their contineous encouragement and education on business . They are updating the new trend on business. Again by next week two FREE business-building events featuring Master Trainer and Nouveau Riche -founder Bob Snyder Learn the essential skills needed to run a money-making business in the exclusive Leadership Training event—PLUS invite your guests to an exciting Special Edition of Nouveau Riche.

Dr. Laura Palmer Noone a former president of University of Phoenix is now the CEO of Nouveau Riche University. Being the most popular and intelligent executive with so many achievements not only in education but also in other successful and progressive organization because of her leadership. I congratulate Nouveau Riche for having Dr. Laura Palmer as the CEO. It is a big opportunity that this university will be soon one of the largest University in the world. Students out there enroll now at Noveau University and for more information search on

Recently, Nouveau University acquired Institute of Construction Management and Technology to offer students a new curriculum on bachelor's and master's degrees in the areas of construction management and technology.This course is the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry which includes construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction advice.

Dr. Laura Palmer Noone a former president of University of Phoenix is now the CEO of Nouveau Riche University. Being the most popular and intelligent executive with so many achievements not only in education but also in other successful and progressive organization because of her leadership. I congratulate Nouveau University for having Dr. Laura Palmer as the CEO. It is a big opportunity that this university will be soon one of the largest University in the world. Students out there , if you want to be a billioner after your studies? enroll now at NRU and for further information search on

An online business school, the five star scholarship was awarded to Najera by Frank Edward Piccolo Foundation. Nouveau Riche is considering his ability of being the excellent in the classroom and be the team leader on basketball. Najera ' life was not easy because belongs to a poor family. He tried to work in an early age to help also in the family's expenses and his sisters. He is so lucky because Nouveau Proffessors found his determination to study that's why he was generously awarded by Piccolo Foundation in behalf of Nouveau University

Once again Christmas is pass approaching! For so many holidays and Christmas gift i have given to my family i think i have to choose which is unique and useful this time. My son is wearing eyeglass so i will not have a hard time to choose what gift i will give to him because i decided to give him glass frame for his eyeglass. Holiday glass frames from Zenni Optical offers huge selections to choose from. You won't regret because the only popular online eyeglasses shop that you can count on. It is very affordable,you can have one at $8 complete Rx eyeglasses and surely satisfied because of high quality and style.

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Otitis (external)- bacterial or fungal infection is caused from trauma or abrasion of the ear canal or from swimming if water is contaminated .


  • pain
  • edematous
  • antibiotic ear drop or oral depends on the physician's order

Furuncle of the External Canal- infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the external canal

Signs and symptoms:
  • pain
  • ringing of the ear
  • deafness or ear noise in the affected ear
  • fever headache
  • enlargement of the local lymph nodes
  • Antibiotic- as prescribed by the physician

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Six years ago , my friend studied medical assistant at St Augustine School, Philippines. She is a widow, 48 years old, she has US visa, and stay at home mom. All her four kids finished college and already working so she does not need to work hard anymore. It happened that St. Augustine School open near in our vicinity, she enrolled medical assistant course. She was convincing me to enroll also but my problem was i can't attend the class because I have kids to attend at my home. That time I was not aware if medical assistant schools , have an online class for medical assistant course. Just yesterday when I was browsing the computer directory i found St Augustine School of Medical Assistant is offering online class . Wow! a good news to all who cannot attend classes in school and determined to study medical assistant course in your home or anywhere you are at anytime . This is your opportunity to complete the entire program at your own convenience even the training in laboratory and basic clinical duty will be all provided online.

Duties and responsibilities of medical assistant as a health care professionals is to assist the specialist physician in keeping all the records and keep the doctors office and facilities ready for the physician able to works effectively. Assist also the physician in performing basic procedures in the clinic or in the hospital .
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My younger sister is slightly overweight but she's too conscious of her figure and weight. She wanted a good shape, somewhat body shape with curvature and lessen her weight. She do exercise and ballroom dancing twice or sometimes three times a week. She don't eat rice or anything food rich in carbohydrate. I pity her because i found her just only persecuting herself by not eating delicious foods. Why not try slimming pills? Well so many slimming pills in the drugstore but not sure if they are effective or there might have side effects. I wanted to help her. When browsing my computer I found this site For those who have weight problem search on this site for further information.

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Environmental control and help to avoid the offending Allergen to control asthma attacks of patient or a child. First a parents must have to understand that dust will trigger asthma attacks. so keep the child's room or house to be free from dust . If possible live in an environment free from pollution.

  • In his room only furnitures needed and remove carpets, upholtered furnitures ,books .or unnessary dust collecting objects.
  • Avoid irritating odors like any chemical agents , tobacco smoke perfumes , paits , cooking odors and etc
  • Remove stuff toys or rugs
  • Avoid pets
  • Take drugs that are only prescribed by the doctor

Vasomotor Rhinitis-

  • an allergic manifestation
  • induced by certain food, milk eggs, fish or shellfish. or medicines
  • some caused by toxin of germs growing in the body . Example paranasal sinuses
  • sneezing
  • temporary nasal obstruction
  • discharges

I don't think online casinos will not become very popular if gamers are not benefiting from it. As I mentioned before in my post that I have a sister residing in Las Vegas working as a nurse. She won thousand dollars distribute to the poor people in the place where she born. She is not rich because she is just working a regular hours as a nurse and had a family to support. But because she won from online casino , so she was very willing to share the amount she won to people who are less fortunate.
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Lots of factors that causes people to get sick. Cancer now is the most dreaded disease around the world. Usually people belief that cancer is inherit from parents or grand parents. I myself too I have seen families that cancer is the major cause of death in their family . maybe they have just prone to acquire the disease due to low resistance when they expose to factors which causes cancer. Eating a lot of foods with preservatives , smoking, work related , exposure to radiation or hazardous chemicals, alcohol, viruses, sunlight. All these may all the factors that cause cancer. In our daily life, seems that hard to get away from it. And usually , we thought that we are strong and healthy but unexpectedly we just have known that we have already stage 2 or 3 . and immediately no other treatment given than chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The only treatment with a major side effects like deflition of immune system of the patient , become weak , anemic, loss of hair and many more. The New Hope Medical Center is an alternative cancer center is here to assist and provide alternative treatments to patient instead of giving a massive dose of chemotherapy . One common cancer is breast cancer. Well , an aternative breast cancer treatment is easy to prevent , just an in dividual itself to do always self breast examination and learn to eat proper diet . Any lumps felt must seek immdiately medical check up. Early detection and early treatment can prevent cancer.

New hope Medical Center have the idea that not all cancer patient needs a large dose of chemotherapy because it will just only deplete immune system of patient and lowers down resistance and patient suffer more on negative side effects. Alternative cancer treatment is giving Low dose chemotherapy is a effective against cancer treatment and keeping immune system stay intact. They also focus on psychological support to patient and the family. Any disease, emotional support is helpful.For more information search on their website

Thank you Jasmine for this award.

I am passing this cute award

Strabismus is inability to balance the extraocular muscles. The persons appears to look at 2 direction at the same time.
paralytic strabismus- muscles of one eyeunderactive
hypertropia-eye deviation is upward
hypotropia- eye deviation is down ward
vertical- vertical separation of visual axes
esotropia -1 eye deviates toward other eye- "cross eye"
exotropia- 1 eye deviates away from the other eye, divergent- " wall eye

poor vision
inferiority complex
surgery may be necessary

Signs and symptoms
lose one eye to see
tilting head
inaccuracy to see objects double vision

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Vision- is the passage of rays of light from an object through the cornea, acqueous humor, lens and vitreous humor to the retina and its appreciation in the cerebral cortex.

Normal (emmetropia) when rays coming from an object at a distance of 6 meters or 20 feet or more are brought to a focus in front on the retina by the lens

Abnormal- ametropia

1.Nearsightedness( myopia)- rays of light coming from an object at a distance of 6 meter (20) feet or more are brought to a focus in front of the retina. The correction is concave.
2. Farsightedness(hyperopia)-rays of the light coming from an object at a distance of 6 meter (20 ) feet or more are brought to a focus in back of the retina. Correction is convex lens

Accommodation-focusing the apparatus of the eye adjust to objects at different distances by means of increasing the convexicity of the lens
Presbyopia-elasticity of the lens decreases with increasing age. requires lenses to correct the problem

It was one Monday night when there was a chairman's call of the Nouveau Uneversity held to meet all Nouveau Riche Investors to tackle about the " top 10" real estate scams and how to avoid them. Nouveau Riche Scam is not true and never been involved to scam and that's the reason why held a meeting to warn their investors that scam is sometimes encouraging to join their promotions and investment. Special guest Mark Kohler taught the tips to avoid these scam. Mark Khooler is a top menthor of sophisticated real state investors has made him one of the most highly sought after his professionals in his specialty. No wonder because he is a CPA and a bright attorney. He will not allow Nouveau Riche to become a Nouveau Riche Scam because Nouveau Riche a most promising University worlwide and he has a high rating for Nouveau students.
Nouveau Riche University offers a wide variety of over 30 real estate investing and business related classes including short sales, wholesaling, fix & flip, business financial management, foreclosures, retirement plan investing, buying out of state deals and more. So rumors that Nouveau Riche scam is exactly opposite. So many graduated in this University practicing real state investment were successfully entrepreneurs without involving in any scam.

Unstopable Nouveau Riche University was featured in January 2008 issue Your Business at Home magazine. This is a national magazines about entrepreneurship. The most popular and trusted magazines that highlight one company for each issue. And available at newstand and bookstore and you can read Articles on real state investing profiles of Nouveau Riche Alumni Students regarding graduates of Nouveau University who are indulge to business on real state investing that now said a successful businessmen and women. Your Business and Home is only featuring company with a qualified product like Nouveau Riche University graduates

Graduates of Nouveau Riche university has nothing to say than to learn entrepreneurship in the field of real estate investing and to earn a huge wealth. You can't deny why you take and study the course on real estate investing and have chosen theNouveau RicheUniversity because of their belief on the university provide them the best education. Ambitious students aspiring for a luxurious lifestyle and you can only achieve by making an effort to finish the course in Nouveau University. They were talented graduate and very lucky of choosing the university that guided them to become rich.

Nouveau Riche University acquires Institute Of Construction Management And Technology College. It is not easy to avail a registration to open college of construction management and technology but because Nouveau University is able to met the requirements with an excellent qualification. Again another opportunities for the student to study and practice of the managerial and technological aspect of the construction industry including construction, construction science, management and technology. This is a degree that surely you earn a huge money. Student out there.. study now!

Nouveau Riche University had gone so far. Had already consider by the Fox magazine as one of the richest university . From small university had already reached what the university's vision to become one of the largest university in the world, The biggest university to provide the highest level of education to student enrolled in this Nouveau Riche University . You will amazed about the greatest achievement of this university.
Recently Nouveau Riche University had acquired the Institute of Construction Management & Technology (ICMT) offering Bachelor's and masters degrees in the area of construction management and construction technology . This is not easy to acquire such a new course like this but Nouveau Riche University have able to present the requirements and found a very much qualified for the accreditation to offer to open Institute of Construction Management and Technology. Expected to provide a broader range of relevant, real world academic experiences to students of Nouveau Riche University.
Nouveau University, founded by entrepreneur Jim Piccolo, he has founded many successful businesses and one is Nouveau Riche University. Businesses including Nouveau Riche, a real estate investment education company which has educated more than 30,000 students nationwide. And she has a down to earth characteristic being a good person as well that he acknowledge the accomplishment of Dr. Hartman's leadership and the bright and smart faculty members of the university. More on the Nouveau Riche University- Dr. Laura Palmer Noone, former President of University of Phoenix, the largest private university in the world, has been named as the Chief Executive Officer for Nouveau Riche University. So no wonder if Nouveau Riche University will hooked the top level of education and provide to the smart and talented students.

To begin with, the meaning of Nouveau Riche (French for "new rich"), or new money, refers to a person who has acquired considerable wealth within his or her generation.'
From fortune magazines enumerated all the billioners all over the world. Yes they are the kings and a families who have successful businesses scatterred all over the world. Like SAM MOORE WALTON, 73 and family Bentonville ARKANSAS $21.1 39.3% of Wal-Mart. Last year, with sales of $32.6 billion, Wal-Mart outsold not just the mom and pop stores it's been putting out of business in small towns across America, but also retailing giant Sears, at least domestically. This performance really lifted the stock, making the Waltons America's richest family.
Now Nouveau Riche created a community Web site 'for the students . This could just a fun and is one ay of start a business to make it profitable. Well I congratulate them in advance I am very sure they will able to reach their goal being a successful businessmen and a billioner soon to be.
No one born already a billioner and no one became an instant billioner except you won lotto or you have already wealth passed to you by your parents. Billiones acquired always from nothing but through hardships patients, perseverance and strategies. So many well known billioners are written in books and magazines about their life story. Their story became interesting because they had undergone the process of rags to riches. They rises from poverty to fame and wealth. It's amazing stories but it's a real. These real stories helps the poor not to stop or loss their hope to became rich like these people. Aim High! there is no impossible under the sun. Nouveau Riche is one of them!

I was sent to emergency Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital early morning 3:30 am when, an intense abdominal pain , nausea and vomiting woke me up. I am rushed to emergency by my son because I am having already cold clammy perspiration , and body malaise. After the physician took my history, physical examination, stool and urine examination I am diagnosed of gastritis.


Acute gastritis -an inflammation of the stomach

too much eating,
eating rapidly,
eat an infected food

Signs and Symptoms
abdominal pain
nausea and vomiting
diarrhea- if the irritating food is not vomited and but reaches the bowel


Chronic Gastritis- mucous membrane of the stomach is thickened

Signs and symptoms:
nausea and some vomiting in the morning

Advised to eat nutritious food in small amount but frequent
well prepared chewed foods

No wonder, Zenni optical was on Fox News! it is very popular optical. Celebrities and reporters are have already chosen these stylist prescription eyeglasses .AS a celebrity people are focused to them everyday so they need to wear an appropriate eyeglasses from Zenni optical , no other else! Aside from stylist and fashionable, you can avail great eyeglasses for less. Very low price and very affordable. Shop here now Variable Dimension Frames from Zenni which you can count on so many selections , availability and styles.

Preciosa Felisiano, 24 years old nurse was kifnapped on July 7 by suspected members of the Abu Sayyap, a muslim extremist group. Two others -aid worker Millet Mendoza and nursing student Joed Anthony Pilangga are still being held hostage by kidnappers but know body knows where and who keep them. Preciosa does not know and said had not seen them because she was keptby kidnappers in one house alone untill his father given a ransom money.
Millet Mendoza was kidnapped last September with other health worker but the four fellow was released immediately. the other hostage name Esperanzita Hupida was release last month after her family paid 2 million pesos.
According to the news Phil Star- there are 33 people were kidnapped by the Abu Sayyap and closed to p50 million already paid in ransom.
Philippine gouvernment failed to stop Abu Sayyap kidnapping for ransom. It's not anymore a headline news if ever there is kidnapped not like before that it nationwide news and the gouvernment showing an effort to recover the victims as soo as possible.
"There is a growing frustration and disappointments among the relatives and friends of the victims over the way authorities are dealing with the cases. There is no public attentions given since this victim are not well known people," statement given by relatives of kidnap victims.

credit to Phil. Star News Nov. 9 2008

Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat accumulated to such an extent that health and social aspect may be negatively affected. Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases that obesity may reduce life expectancy. I know some obese girls developed inferiority complex. They felt embarrassed being with other girls or peers. The primary treatment for obesity is dieting and physical exercise but usually fails and they resulted to slimming pills. So many slimming pills available in many drugstore but it is not advisable to just purchased and take pills without any prescription from medical practitioner.The clinic offering Xenical slimming pills used as an adjunc to diet and exercise that requires prescription. First filled up online weight consultation form for the medical practitioner to access if your body is suitable to anti-obese drug. It acts in fat metabolisation, leading to a reduction in your overall body weight.
Another recommendable drug is Reductil that works by blocking the re-uptake of certain neurotransmitters which influence satiety during and after eating. Everybody wants to eat and it is disappointing feeling if we prohibited ourselves to eat what we want to eat. Good slimming drug acts to feel satisfied with less food, thereby eating less than normal without disappointments because slows down metabolism and easier for the body to burn calories. It means that these diet pills Xenical and Reductil are medications are most effective and fast working and no worry of side effects as long as you have undergo online consultation before taking the drug. Very safe and readily available in UK for delivery. Filled up the consultation form now for you to become slim and healthy!

Vincent's Angina- usually called "TRENCH MOUTH" and in a pseudomembranous ulceration. affecting the:

  • gums

  • mucosa of the mouth

  • tonsils

  • pharynx
  • spirochets
  • fusiform bacillus
  • control infection-
  • make patient comfortable
  • maintain nutrition
nursing care:
  • mouthwash or irrigation
  • liquid diet
  • no acidic food
  • sterilized utensils

I’ve been tagged by Survivor mom Thanks mom and :)

1. Add your blog/s to the list. Feel free to add all your other blogs. It’s okey if you only post this questions in one blog as long as you answer them.
2. Get back to ME and I’ll add your blogs to the master’s list HERE {Note that you are not ALLOWED to change this links and make sure to leave the exact URL.}
3. Copy from Start to End.
4. Tag as many friends online you know. But you don’t need to be tag in order to join. Who played along:

1. Music of my Heart 2. Me and Mine 3. Creative in Me 4. For the LOVE of Food 5. Little Peanut 6. Pea in a Pod 7. It’s Where the HEART Is 8. Around the World 9. FunFierceFabulous 10. Ozzy’s Mom 11. Me,Myself+2 12. Kidd Designs 13. Complex Life 14. BeautifuL s0UL 15. Kurdapya Meets World 16. once we were 2… 17 Pinaymama’s Diary 18. Best Pinay Mom 19. Survivor mom 20. Mothercares 21. nursing notes 22Your Blog here

Questions and Answers:

1. Grab the book nearest to you, turn to page 18, find line 4. Write down what it says:..“Knowing what i know now, I can’t imagine growing up in this world without having faith in Jesus Christ,” Smoltz says in an interview at Atlanta’s Turner Field.

2. Stretch your left arm out as far as you can. What do you touch first?…Window

3.What is the last thing you watched on TV? Startalk

4.WITHOUT LOOKING, guess what time it is: 06:25 pm i guess

5. Now look at the clock, what is the actual time?…06 20 pm

6. With the exception of the computer, what can you hear?…. children's noise outside

7. When did you last step outside? what were you doing? This morning, to wet market

8. Before you came to this website, what did you look at? Emails

9. What are you wearing?… short and t-shirt

10. Did you dream last night?…no

11. When did you last laugh?….this noon when watching eat bulaga

12. What is on the walls of the room you are in?…

13. Seen anything weird lately?.. nope

14. What do you think of this quiz?’s fun!

15. What is the last movie you saw?…not watching movie

16. If you became a multi-millionaire overnight, what would you buy first? house and lot

17. Tell me something about you that I don’t know:..forgiving, considerate

18. If you could change one thing about the world, regardless of guilt or politics, what would you do?… the change i would like to do is to make one and only universal language through out the world.

19. Do you like to dance?, i’m not a good dancer ^_^

20. Imagine your first child is a girl, what do you call her? a boy?… my first child is really a girl and i named herChristine Mae, and second is a boy i named him Joshua

21. Would you ever consider living abroad?… no

Love to share this questions to; Jacky, ipanks, online tours, hyde, lutchi

LYMPHEDEMA - ELEPHANTIASIS - is due to obstruction of the lymph flow in the extremities and usually both extremities are affected' In some cases, radical mastectomy ( removal of the breast due to carcinomas) both lymph nodes, vessels are obstructed resulting swelling of the arms. For cases of lymphedema in the lower extremities is due to varicose veins and phlebitis.Lymph obstruction due to parasites tend to frequent infection, when invasion of filaria parasites leads to chronic infection characterized by high fever and chills. tendency to a chronic fibrosis and thickening of the subcutaneous tissues and hyperthrophy of the skin. Extremities swells so much and given the name elephantiasis.

  • apply elastic bandage
  • elevation of the affected part
  • proper hygiene to prevent further chance of infection

Heart disease like heart attack is now the number one killer in my country (Philippines). Most of those wealthy Filipinos going abroad like in the United States prefer to seek medical treatment or surgery such as Heart bypass surgery. Most of the patient having this disease are from middle class to higher class especially executives whose works are emotionally stressful and no physical exertion and those also the people who can afford to buy and used to eat delicious food but fatty and mostly rich in cholesterol.These are the foods that highly prone to form plaque-like deposits containing fatty substance, mostly cholesterol, fatty acids, and often calcium which form in the inner wall of an artery. Once the plaque build up, plaques clogged the arteries and blocks the nutrients and oxygen supply of the heart . Through the blood investigation result- the increasing of normal level of cholesterol in the blood stream and there are certain oral drug medications to lower down the increase of normal level of cholesterol of our body but when arteries clogged there is no other treatment than to create a coronary bypass continuos blood flow to supply heart' muscle with nutrients and oxygen. Once the heart failed to received blood supply , patient suffer of chest pain called angina.

Coronary Artery bypass Surgery is a surgical procedure to relieved angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease. Performed to route blood flow around clogged arteries. Arteries and veins in the patient's body are grafted to the coronary arteries to bypass the clogged arteries and improve the blood supply to the hearts blood circulation which is supplying the heart muscles.
I know many of you are suffering coronary disease that needs surgery, you may search for further information about coronary bypass surgery.
atherosclerosis which needs bypass operation

Heart bypass surgery - series
heart bypass surgery - series



  • inflammation of the lymphatic channels
  • commonly caused from infected wound in an extremity
  • red streaks that extends up -from an arm or legs,
  • an infection that is not localized and that can lead to septicemia.
  • Infection's symptoms: fever, chills, localized pain, tenderness of the affected area,
  • swelling of the involved lymphatic channels
  • necrotic to form abscess

Christmas is past approaching, kids like nephews , niece, god children and many more are expecting to Christmas gifts as usual. Last year I only choosed the simple one which small cake in box which Santa clause printed on the cover and wrapped with pink ribbon. I found it very common

ABDOMINAL HERNIA- is the protrusion of a viscus through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained and may result from congenital or acquired weakness of the abdominal wall
1. Inguinal hernia

  • indirect inguinal hernia-due to weakness of the abdominal wall at the point through which the spermatic cord emerges (in the male) and the round ligament (in the female). Extends to inguinal canal and often to the scrotum ( for male) and labia ( for female)
  • direct inguinal hernia-passes through the posterior inguinal wall and this is more difficult to repair than indirect
2. Femoral hernia- appears below the groin and frequent in women

3. Umbilical hernia- when umbilical orifice failed to closed . Common also to obese person and children when there is a protrusion of the umbilicus

4. Ventral or incisional hernia due to weakness of the abdominal wall usually occur to an infected previous abdominal operation with drainage.

  • irreducible- adhesion form between sac and its contents
  • incarcerated - intestinal flow is completely obstructed
  • strangulated - blood and intestinal flow is completely obstructed

Sign and Symptoms:
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • swelling of hernial sac

Clinical Manifestation:

  • with pulsating palpable mass, produced a constant severe and boring pain
Untreated is eventually outcome is rupture and sudden death
Only surgery is the treatment and no medical treatment

Types of Surgical Intervention
  • Excision of area affected
  • replacement of excised segment by a bypass (Synthetic ) graft
Dissecting Aneurysm of the aorta
  • an aneurysm with a tear in the intima of the aorta this permits blood flow to dissect its way into the substance of the aortic wall, resulting a formation of hematoma
  • symptoms may resemble coronary occlusion

  • this may involve renal artey, subclavian artery, popliteal artery or any major artery
  • this cause pulsating mass and pain or pressure on the surrounding structure
  • replacement graft are used to repair this aneurysms

URINARY TRACK INFECTION- caused by the invasion of pathogenic microorganism in the urinary track.

Sites of the urinary tract where microorganisms usually invade are the following:
Bladder- infection of the bladder called Cystitis
Urethra- infection of the urethra is called urethritis
Prostate- infection of the prostate is called prostatitis

Bacteriurea - presence of bacteria in the urine upon urine laboratory examination which indicates infection


  • urinary obstruction or stasis due to possible urethral stenosis or stone or tumor
  • increasing intraluminal pressure or over distended bladder
  • fecal soiling of urethral meatus
  • due to pressure or injury during catheterazation or cystoscopy
  • old age or pregnancy
  • patient with diabetis mellitus or arteriosclerosis are prone to infection due to lack of blood supply.


  • In female urethra is prone to bacterial invasion, unless personal hygiene is stringently. Organisms migrated from intestinal content (fecal). May sometimes sometimes accidentally enters the bladder and infect the urethra. If infection remained in the bladder it is termed Cystitis
  • in women seem to be more prone to develop cystitis because has a shorter length of urethra, anatomic proximity to vagina so infection apt to develop after mechanical coitus
  • anatomic proximity to rectum so infection apt to develop infection due to fecal contamination
Signs and Symptoms:
  • difficulty of urination
  • urinary frequency
  • urgency
  • pain
  • back pain if there is involvement of the kidney
  • fever - if temperature rises , patient has to submit urine investigation for pus in the urine

Medical assistant program are offering courses to help students to be a medical assistant. This online programs are design to prepare to students to assist medical professionals by performing and assisting basic medical duties and responsibilities in medical office or medical clinics / centers. This curriculum includes the subjects on medical practice , jurisprudence medical ethics and other clerical jobs like keeping patients records and handling patients medical benefits like health services discounts or health insurance.

Medical assistant is one in demand job, so many students wishes to take this course aside from easy seeking job but also an wonderful job. You work as an assistant of medical professionals which deals with the care of sick people. As a nurse, I am advising my nephew to study medical assistant but be sure that he enter a medical assistant which is accredited, well facilitated and can provide the best education and training on medical assistant course.

When I was a staff nurse in a hospital I saw them and be with them working together and their were assisting the physicians in their clinical tasks to keep the offices and clinics of physicians in running smoothly. I also came across some medical assistant students who are required to complete a supervised clinical experiences that includes competencies, and evaluations should be all completed by them before they graduate . At the completion of the program, graduates who have diligently attended class and their actual clinical practice he will become a capable medical assistant and he could be joining medical assistant organizations which update his knowledge and the trends on medical assistant practice.

AORTITIS- inflammation of the aorta

Arteriosclerotic aortitis- characterized by dilatation or aneurysm of the vessel which cause pain. Usually manifest at the age of 60.. entire surface of the intima degenerates and becomes sclerosed.
Luetic Aortitis - usually age 50 are affected of the disease. Start at the roots of the aorta then scattered in the other parts of the aorta

Signs and Symptoms:

  • feeling of constriction of the chest
  • sudden attacks of dyspnea
  • rapid pulse
  • high blood pressure
  • deep cyanotic and profound sweating

Web Page URL:
The Page Rank:

(the page rank value is 3 from 10 possible points)



  • inflammation of the arteries, veins, adjacent nerves of the extremities and result in thrombus formation and occlusion of the vessels
  • unknown cause
  • maybe a bacterial origin
  • had consider that maybe due to smoking

  • leg cramps
  • burning pain
  • painful red lumps under the skin
  • cyanosis later- ( cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membrane due to lack of oxygen in the blood)
  • ulceration and gangrene if progresses

  • improved circulation
  • protect from trauma to avoid source of infection
  • avoid smoking
  • enough rest
  • increase fluid intake
  • proper foot hygiene
  • socks or stocking must always clean
  • slight massage of the foot with moisturizer
  • avoid circular or rolled stocking

ATHEROSCLEROSIS- characterized by the formation of deposits containing cholesterol or fatty acids

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS - loss of elasticity and a hardening of the wall of arterial vessels


  • hereditary
  • metabolic disturbance
  • factors related to arterial hypertension, platelet capabitlity, of initiating formation of atherosclerotic lesion

  • hypertension
  • stress
  • cigarette smoking
  • hereditary
  • diabetes obesity elevated blood cholesterol
  • tiring activity



  • abnormally dilated veins most commonly occur in the lower extremities or the lower trunk.
  • it can also occur to any part of the body like esophageal varices and hemorrhoidal veins
  • long standing distension due to back pressure on the veins, on pregnancy, obecity, prolonged standing
  • hereditary weakness of the veins
  • occupation factor which require long standing like barbers, nurses, beauticians ,elevator assistant

  • edema of the legs
  • trauma and infection

  • disfigurement of the legs
  • easy fatigue of the part affected area
  • feeling of heavyness
  • painful cramps of the legs at night
  • pain during menstrual period
  • darkened tortuous swollen veins

  • avoid wearing tight garters, constricting girdle that obstruct venous flow
  • avoid cross legs
  • avoid sitting and standing for a long period

  • encourage to walk
  • carried out prescribed analgesic for pain observed for any signs of hemorrhage at affected site
  • circulation is observed that dressing must not too constricting

THALASSEMIA Major ( Cooley's Anemia) -

  • beochemical abnormality affecting either alpha or beta polypeptide chains of globin
  • beta thalassemia refers to inherited hemolytic anemiacharacterized by absence of the beta globulin chain of hemoglobin synthesis
  • very common in middle east
  • this inherited from both parents

  • severe chronic hemolytic anemia
  • mark enlargement of the liver and spleen
  • jaundice
THALASSEMIA MINOR (Cooley's trait)-
  • characterized by a defective red cell as seen in laboratory finding



  • are benign tumor of the breast which are firm, round, movable and usually appearing in breast of young woman
  • painless and not tender
  • no malignant potential


  • BREAST- is common sites of carcinoma in females
  • unknown cause but common in woman who have family history
  • most tumors of the breast in women who are at age of 40 and above
  • those who had late menopause are carcinomatous
  • those who are in higher economic level
Usually tumor grows at the upper outer quadrant of the breast. When it grows, it attaches to the chest wall on the overlying skin then tumor extends to the lymph gland of the adjacent axilla. If not treated, tendency to reach the medial half of the breast, it extends to the lymp nodes within the chest along the internal mammary artery until possibility to metastasize to other organs like lungs, bone, brain or liver

  • non tender lump, movable at the upper outer quadrant of the breast
  • painless except in late stage
  • dimpling or "orange peel" skin
  • retracted nipple is evident
  • assymmetry- that the breast affected is more elevated
  • pain, ulceration and edema at later stage

  • physical examination
  • mammography- most common to detect non-palpable lesion
  • biopsy or aspiration
  • metastatic work may include bone scan, liver scan, liver function test, chest x'ray brain scan and other laboratory works
Nursing Management:
  • Psychosocial Preparation- listen and support the patient and alleviate patient's feels of disfigurement and her cancer disease
  • explanation to patient and family about the purpose of surgery and sought to determine that the husband's genuine understanding and love
  • carried out pre-operative skin preparation by shaving the areas for a possible maximal surge

  • Simple Mastectomy- removal of breast without lymph node dissection
  • Radical Mastectomy-removal of the breast and the underlying muscles down to the chest wall after removal of the nodules and the lymphatic of the axilla
  • Monitor vital signs every 30 minutes for first hour and record for doctors evaluation
  • observe dressing for any signs of bleeding
  • if recovered from anesthesia sedatives- must give pain reliever as ordered by physician
  • turned head to one side
  • encourage to have a deep breath to prevent pulmonary complication
  • proper care of drainage catheter if there is any
  • positioning of patient depends on the dressing and semi- fowlers is desirable
  • encourage to stand from bed on the second or third day
  • arms on the affected area must hold by a sling
  • normal diet is to be given unless if patient is nauseated
  • drainage tube removed on the second or third day

CHRONIC GRANULOCYTIC LEUKEMIA - characterized by white cell count rangin from 100,000- 1,000,000 per cu. mm. High percentage of this leukocytes are immature cells and associated with enlargement of the spleen and the liver but little swelling of the lymph nodes. Occur in the ages between 25 and 40 years old.


  • complain of the dragging sensation of the weight of the organ due to tumor of the spleen in the abdomen.
  • painful and tender on pressure of long bones ( tibia, ribs, sternum)


  • characterized by by a greatky increased leukocytes count, over 90 percent of cells being mature lymphocytes.
  • occur between ages 45-60 years old
  • generalyzed lymph nodes enlargement
  • development of anemia, fever,cachexia
  • hemorrhagic features

  • assist the patient to accept and participate in the therapeutic regimen as effectively as possible
  • control pain (sedatives as needed)
  • nausea and vomitting- offer ice chips, anti-emetic drug-(per doctor's order) be given half hour before meal , small bland feeding
  • oral fluid intake to prevent precipitation of uric acid and crystals in the kidney
  • combat infection
  • frequent mouth care- to remove old dried blood and combat mouth odor
  • use cotton applicator instead of toothbrush to prevent gum irritation or trauma
  • gentle cleaning of nostrils
  • application of petroleum jelly on the lips to prevent from drying and cracking
  • diet should be soft to reduce mechanical irritation of the gums
  • evidence of infection ( fever-chills , skin lesions) should be promptly reported
  • handle patient gently to prevent trauma
  • close observation of the body orifice and skin for signs of bleeding
  • place patient in bed when administering transfusion and steroids
  • observed proper technique of administering blood transfusion
  • demonstration of the nurse's concern for the welfare, does much to comfort the patient

APLASTIC ANEMIA- disorder characterized by hyperplasia or aplasia (failure) resulting of bone marrow depression or destruction


  • drug or chemical or the result of radiation damaged
  • caused by agents produced by marrow aplasia such as benzene derivatives, anti tumor agents
  • agents responsible for aplasia such as anti-convulsant, anti microbials, anti thyroids, antidiabetic, anti histamine, analgesics, sedatives, insecticides or heavy metal
  • toxic materials such as inorganic arsenic
  • viral infections especially hepatitis

1. abnormal bleeding resulting from thrombocytopenia
  • bleeding from gums, nose, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract
  • purpura, petechiae, ecchymoses
2. anemia- resulting from depression of hemoglobin
  • pallor, weakness
  • exertional dyspnea, palpitations
3. infection with high fever- resulting from granulocytopenia
  • pharyngitis and oropharyngeal mucositis
  • sepsis via gastrointestinal tract or genitourinary tract



  • an aregenerative anemia of intrinsic origin occurs in patient with chronic infection
  • an anemia with inflammatory states such as rheumatoid arthritis and with neoplastic disease of all types.
  • failure of red blood cell production and medication of all types are ineffective in correcting anemia until the infection or inflammatory process has been controlled or the tumor eradicated

AREGENERATIVE ANEMIA- failure by the bone marrow to release new red cells at a rate sufficient to maintain the red cell count and hemoglobin concentration at normal levels


  • result from physical injury to the bone marrow such as occationally occurs in chronic exposure to x-ray or radioactive materials
  • caused by mechanical interference with blood formation encountered in leukemia, plasmona, myeloma, hodgekin disease of bone marrow
  • physical injury to the bone marrow- occurs in chronic exposure to x ray or radioactive materials
  • bone marrow fibrosis -unknown cause

FOLATE DEFICIENCY- nutritional macrocytic anemia caused by folate deficiency


  • inadequate food intake
  • surgery
  • pregnancy
  • lactation
  • chronic liver disease
  • long term use of anti-convulsion drugs which interfere folate absorption


IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA- iron deficit in which the blood hemoglobin and the red blood cell count are below normal level


  • failure of the patient to ingest or absorb sufficient dietary iron to compensate for the iron requirement
  • loss of iron due to bleeding such as gastrointestinal bleeding, excessive menstrual flow
  • due to increase of iron requirement during pregnancy and menstruation

for mild anemia-
  • limited pallor
  • fatigue
  • dyspnea- difficulty of bleeding
for severe anemia-
  • hemoglobin count result is below 8 gm. per 100 ml (12 gm. normal hemoglobin count)
  • weakness
  • fatigability
  • breathlessness
  • cardiac palpitation
  • sore of the tongue
  • nail brittle-spoon shaped


PERNICIOUS ANEMIA - vitamin B 12 deficiency

CAUSE : when there is defect in the gastric secretory function responsible for vitamin B 12 absorption

1. physical weakness

  • pallor
  • dyspnea- difficulty of breathing
  • orthopnea- ability to breath only when in upright position like sitting or standing
  • palpitation
  • edema of the legs- (edema- presence of excess fluid )
2. Gastrointestinal Symptom:
  • sore in the mouth with smooth red beefy tongue (glossitis)
  • loss of appetite
  • indigestion
  • abdominal pain
  • recurring diarrhea and constipation
3. neurologic symptoms if untreated:
  • tingling
  • numbness or burning pains
  • loss of position sense leading to disturbance of gait
4.psychiatric symptoms:
  • depression
  • paranoea
  • delirium
  • anorexia
  • weight loss


  • an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tubercolosis
  • caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through air
  • an airborne disease transmitted by droplet secretion from the respiratory tract of an infected person during coughing, sneezing, talking, or singing
  • acquired by a person who is in close contact with someone who has infectious tuberculosis
  • acquired by a person with declining immunity such as HIV positive
  • persons prone are those homeless , or on poverty

  • losing weight
  • fatigue in the afternoon
  • pale
  • cough
  • anorexia- (lack of appetite)
  • indigestion
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • sputum increases
  • afternoon fever
  • night sweats
  • if progresses-rapid loss of weight and strength
  • hemoptysis- ( presence of blood in the sputum due to hemorrhage from lung )

  • physical, mental, emotional rest
  • anti-tuberculous therapy
  • proper nutrition

RESPIRATORY FAILURE - exist whenever the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs accommodate with the body tissue metabolic rate of the oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production.

HYPOXEMIA-lack of oxygen in the blood

HYPERCAPNEA- - accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood


  • cyanosis-bluish discoloration of the skin, nail beds and mucous membrane caused by reduce oxygen in the blood
  • tachycardia- abnormally rapid pulse rate, more than 1oo beats per minute
  • bradycardia-abnormally slow pulse rate, lees than 60 beats per minute
  • hypotension- low blood pressure
  • dyspnea- difficulty of breathing or labored breathing
  • restlessness
  • irritable
  • coma

  • pre-oprerative preventive measure as the administration of aerosol, intermittent positive pressure breathing
  • prequent repositioning of patient when he is in prolonged stay in bed
  • respiratory therapy: maintaining clear airway, humidity and nebulization therapy, oxygen therapy

LUNG CANCER- tumors of the lung arising within the walls or epithelial lining of the bronchus


  • excessive smoking
  • occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickle, iron, radioactive substances, coal tar products, petroleum oil mist,
  • hacking non-productive cough
  • wheezing in the chest noted
  • spitting of blood or blood streaks in the sputum
  • fever due to infection like pneumonitis
  • malaise
  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • anorexia
  • chest pain
  • dyspnea (difficulty of breathing)-due to partial bronchial obstruction
  • symptoms of metastases like bone pain, abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting from liver involvement
  • lobectomy-removal of one lobe
  • pneumonectomy-removal of entire lung
  • assist patient to undergo diagnostic procedure
  • prevention of further extension to upper respiratory tract infection
  • physical and emotional support
  • teach patient the advantage of frequent exercises after operation
  • providing supportive and rehabilitative measures

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